No - there should be no punishment for closing questions
Closing a question is a temporary state to let you know that something is wrong with your post. Once a question has been closed you should consider the following:
While it may be seen as "punishment", that certainly isn't the case. This is in fact the reason that closures go through multiple states. When a question is first closed, it is marked as "on hold" - this is supposed to indicate clearly to the asker that their question is in a limbo state spending edits to fix it up. After a period of time, if the question has remained closed, it will transition into a "closed" state.
During these states, if you edit your question, it will automatically appear in the
/review "Reopen Votes" queue so that people can vote to reopen it.
Arguing that you believe your question is on topic against the will of the entire community is not going to result in your question being reopened. If you feel that your question was closed incorrectly you can always come to meta and post one question asking for clarification so that you can receive a verbose explanation as to why the question was closed.